Friday, March 22, 2013

The "Good Data" Problem in Science

In science today, there's a huge problem: Way too many people are publishing way too many results that are way too positive.

This problem isn't imaginary or speculative. It's rampant and well documented. Literature surveys have repeatedly uncovered a statistically unlikely preponderance of "statistically significant" positive findings in medicine [see Reference 1 below], biology [2], ecology [3], psychology [4], economics [5], and sociology [6].

Positive findings (findings that support a hypothesis) are more likely to be submitted for publication, and more likely to be accepted for publication [7][8]. They're also published quicker than negative ones [9]. In addition, only 63% of results presented initially in Abstracts are eventually (within 9 years) published, and those that are published tend to be positive [10]. There's some evidence, too, that higher-prestige journals (or at least ones that get cited more often) publish research reporting greater "effect sizes" [11].

Why is this a problem? When only positive results are reported, knowledge is being hidden. A false picture of reality is presented (e.g., a false picture of the effectiveness of particular drugs or treatment options). Lack of informed decision-making in health care is a serious issue, since lives are at stake. But even when lives are not at stake, theories go awry when a hypothesis is verified in one experiment yet refuted in another experiment that goes unpublished because "nothing was found."

Another reason under-reporting of negative findings is a pressing problem is that meta-analyses and systematic literature reviews, which are an increasingly common and important tool for understanding the Big Problems in medicine, psychology, sociology, etc., suffer from a classic GIGO conundrum: The meta-analyses are only as good as the available input. If the input is fundamentally flawed in some way, odds are good that the meta-analysis will also be flawed. 

In some cases, scientists (or drug companies) simply fail to submit their own negative findings for publication. But research journals are also to blame for not accepting papers that report negative results. Cornell University's Daryl Bem famously raised eyebrows in 2011 when he published a paper in The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology showing that precognition exists and can be measured in the laboratory. Of course, in reality, precognition (at least of the type tested by Bem) doesn't exist, and the various teams of researchers who tried to replicate Bem's results were unable to do so. When one of those teams submitted a paper to The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, it was flatly rejected. "We don't publish replication studies," the team was told. The researchers in question then submitted their work to Science Brevia, where it also got turned down. Then they tried Psychological Science. Again, rejection. Eventually, a different team (Galak et al.) succeeded in getting its Bem-replication results (which were negative) published in The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, but only after the journal came under huge criticism from the research community. (Find more on this fracas here and here and here.)

Aside from the dual problems of researchers not submitting negative findings for publication and journals routinely rejecting such submissions, there's a third aspect to the problem, which can be called outcome reporting bias: putting the best possible spin on things. This takes various forms, from changing the chosen outcomes-measure after all the data are in (to make the data look better, via a different criterion-of-success; one of many criticisms of the $35 million STAR-D study of depression treatments), "cherry-picking" trials or data points (which should probably be called pea-picking in honor of Gregor Mendel, who pioneered the technique), or the more insidious phenomenon of HARKing, Hypothesizing After the Results are Known [12], all of which often occur with selective citation of concordant studies [13].

No one solution will suffice to fix this mess. What we do know is that the journals, the professional associations, government agencies like FDA, and scientists themselves have have tried in various ways (and failed in various ways) to address the issue. And so, it's still an issue.

A deterioration of ethical standards in science is the last thing any of us needs right now. Personally, I don't want to see the government step in with laws and penalties. Instead, I'd rather see professional bodies work together on:

1. A set of governing ethical concepts (a explicit, detailed Statement of Ethical Principles) that everyone in science can (voluntarily) pledge to abide by. Journals, drug companies, and researchers need to be able to point to a set of explicit guidelines and be able to go on record as supporting those specific guidelines.

2. Journals should make public the procedures by which disputes involving the publishability of results, or the adequacy of published results, can be aired and resolved.

In the long run, I think Open Access online journals will completely redefine academic publishing, and somewhere along the way, such journals will evolve a system of transparency that will be the death of dishonest or half-honest research. The old-fashioned Elsevier model will simply fade away, and with it, most of its problems.

Over the short run, though, we have a legitimate emergency in the area of pharma research. Drug companies have compromised public safety with their well-documented, time-honored, ongoing practice of withholding unfavorable results. The ultimate answer is something like what's described at AllTrials.net. It's that, or class-action hell forever.


References



  • 1.Kyzas PA, Denaxa-Kyza D, Ioannidis JPA (2007) Almost all articles on cancer prognostic markers report statistically significant results. European Journal of Cancer 43: 2559–2579. [here]
  • 2.Csada RD, James PC, Espie RHM (1996) The “file drawer problem” of non-significant results: Does it apply to biological research? Oikos 76: 591–593. [here]
  • 3.Jennions MD, Moller AP (2002) Publication bias in ecology and evolution: An empirical assessment using the ‘trim and fill’ method. Biological Reviews 77: 211–222. [here]
  • 4.Sterling TD, Rosenbaum WL, Weinkam JJ (1995) Publication decisions revisited - The effect of the outcome of statistical tests on the decision to publish and vice-versa. American Statistician 49: 108–112. [here]
  • 5.Mookerjee R (2006) A meta-analysis of the export growth hypothesis. Economics Letters 91: 395–401. [here]
  • 6.Gerber AS, Malhotra N (2008) Publication bias in empirical sociological research - Do arbitrary significance levels distort published results? Sociological Methods & Research 37: 3–30. [here]
  • 7. Song F, Eastwood AJ, Gilbody S, Duley L, Sutton AJ (2000) Publication and related biases. Health Technology Assessment 4 [here]
  • 8.Dwan K, Altman DG, Arnaiz JA, Bloom J, Chan A-W, et al. (2008) Systematic review of the empirical evidence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias. PLoS ONE 3: e3081. [here]
  • 9.Hopewell S, Clarke M, Stewart L, Tierney J (2007) Time to publication for results of clinical trials (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. [here]
  • 10.Scherer RW, Langenberg P, von Elm E (2007) Full publication of results initially presented in abstracts. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. [here]
  • 11.Murtaugh PA (2002) Journal quality, effect size, and publication bias in meta-analysis. Ecology 83: 1162–1166. [here]
  • 12.Kerr, Norbert L. (1998) HARKing: Hypothesizing After the Results are Known, Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2(3):196-217. [here]
  • 13.Etter JF, Stapleton J (2009) Citations to trials of nicotine replacement therapy were biased toward positive results and high-impact-factor journals. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 62: 831–837. [here]
  • 176 comments:

    1. Anonymous4:32 PM

      I could have sworn I left a comment here.

      Anyhow, in response to the previously left comment in reply to my original comment:
      I respectfully disagree that publishing failed reactions would add any betterment to scientific progress. In fact, I would argue it would slow progress down. Too much time and effort would be spent writing up failed experiments.

      Also, I must emphasize a point I made in my previous comment:
      Publishing dishonest data and not publishing failed reactions are two different things. Not sure to which you are referring by:
      "deterioration of ethical standards in science is the last thing any of us needs right now"
      I argue it is not unethical to withhold (or not bother) publishing failed experiments. However, the former is indeed unethical.

      ReplyDelete
    2. Attend The Data Analytics Courses From ExcelR. Practical Data Analytics Courses Sessions With Assured Placement Support From Experienced Faculty. ExcelR Offers The Data Analytics Courses.
      Data Analytics Courses
      Data Science Interview Questions

      ReplyDelete
    3. I have recently started a blog, the info you provide on this site has helped me greatly. Thanks for all of your time & work.
      Data Science Course in Hyderabad | Data Science Training in Hyderabad

      ReplyDelete

    4. https://kdp.amazon.com/community/profile.jspa?editMode=true&userID=1424531
      https://kdp.amazon.com/community/profile.jspa?editMode=true&userID=1427388
      https://kdp.amazon.com/community/profile.jspa?editMode=true&userID=1428236
      https://challenges.openideo.com/profiles/1119874714489381863241486229946090
      http://www.dead.net/member/khairyayman
      https://vimeo.com/user54212503
      https://mootools.net/forge/profile/naklafshdmam
      http://bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu/bionumber.aspx?&id=113190


      ReplyDelete
    5. I really enjoy simply reading all of your weblogs. Simply wanted to inform you that you have people like me who appreciate your work. Definitely a great post. Hats off to you! The information that you have provided is very helpful.
      Data Science Course in Bangalore

      ReplyDelete
    6. I finally found great post here.I will get back here. I just added your blog to my bookmark sites. thanks.Quality posts is the crucial to invite the visitors to visit the web page, that's what this web page is providing.
      Data Science Training in Bangalore

      ReplyDelete
    7. I have bookmarked your site since this site contains significant data in it. You rock for keeping incredible stuff. I am a lot of appreciative of this site.
      data science certification

      ReplyDelete
    8. Hello, I have browsed most of your posts. This post is probably where I got the most useful information for my research. Thanks for posting, we can see more on this. Are you aware of any other websites on this subject.
      data science course hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    9. I think I have never seen such blogs ever before that has complete things with all
      details which I want. So kindly update this ever for us.
      data science institute in hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    10. Bass Clef Notes: The modern staff is made up of five lines and four spaces, each of which is reserved for a specific pitch. At the beginning of each staff. bass clef

      ReplyDelete

    11. Thanks for sharing this post.It is very informative and helpful.

      SMS Bomber Online
      How to hack kahoot

      ReplyDelete
    12. Attend The Data Science Courses From ExcelR. Practical Data Science Courses Sessions With Assured Placement Support From Experienced Faculty. ExcelR Offers The Data Science Courses.
      Data Science Courses

      ReplyDelete
    13. Wow! Just when I thought your work couldn’t get any better!
      360DigiTMG big data analytics course

      ReplyDelete
    14. Thanks for posting the best information and the blog is very helpful.data science interview questions and answers

      ReplyDelete
    15. Very good message, I stumbled across your blog and wanted to say that I really enjoyed reading your articles. Anyway, I will subscribe to your feed and hope you post again soon.
      Data Analytics course in Jaipur

      ReplyDelete
    16. Great site you have here. It’s hard to find quality writing like yours nowadays. I really appreciate people like you! keep up the good work.
      Data Analytics course in Vadodara

      ReplyDelete
    17. You appear to know a lot about this. It’s like you read my thoughts!. Thanks for writing this.
      Data Science Course in Vadodara

      ReplyDelete
    18. It is late to find this act. At least one should be familiar with the fact that such events exist. I agree with your blog and will come back to inspect it further in the future, so keep your performance going.
      Data Science Course in Jaipur

      ReplyDelete
    19. Your style is really unique in comparison to other people I have read stuff from. I appreciate you for posting when you have the opportunity, Guess I will just bookmark this site.
      Data Science Course in Nagpur

      ReplyDelete
    20. I don’t even know the way I stopped up here, but I believed this submit used to be good. I do not recognize who you are but definitely you’re going to a famous blogger in the event you are not already.
      Data Science Course in Lucknow

      ReplyDelete
    21. whoa this blog is wonderful i like studying your articles. Keep up the good work.
      Data Science Course in Vadodara

      ReplyDelete
    22. I haven’t checked in here for a while since I thought it was getting boring, but the last several posts are great quality so I guess I’ll add you back to my everyday blog list.
      Data Science Course in Jaipur

      ReplyDelete
    23. You are so interesting! I do not suppose I’ve read through anything like this before. So good to discover another person with a few genuine thoughts on this topic. Thank you for starting this up. This web site is one thing that’s needed on the web, someone with a bit of originality!
      Data Science Course in Nagpur

      ReplyDelete
    24. Thanks for sharing this information. I have shared this link with others, keep posting such information keep up the good work.
      Data Science Course in Lucknow

      ReplyDelete
    25. whoa this blog is wonderful i like studying your articles. Keep up the good work.
      data scientist course in Hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    26. I don’t even know the way I stopped up here, but I believed this submit used to be good. I do not recognize who you are but definitely you’re going to a famous blogger in the event you are not already.
      data scientist training and placement in Hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    27. Your style is really unique in comparison to other people I have read stuff from. I appreciate you for posting when you have the opportunity, Guess I will just bookmark this site.
      data scientist training and placements

      ReplyDelete
    28. It is late to find this act. At least one should be familiar with the fact that such events exist. I agree with your blog and will come back to inspect it further in the future, so keep your performance going.
      data scientist training in Hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    29. Anonymous4:14 AM

      Excellent Post,Keep sharing such type of blog.

      Machine learning course in Pune

      ReplyDelete
    30. This comment has been removed by the author.

      ReplyDelete
    31. whoa this blog is wonderful i like studying your articles. Keep up the good work.
      data scientist course in Hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    32. I don’t even know the way I stopped up here, but I believed this submit used to be good. I do not recognize who you are but definitely you’re going to a famous blogger in the event you are not already.
      data scientist training and placement in Hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    33. Your style is really unique in comparison to other people I have read stuff from. I appreciate you for posting when you have the opportunity, Guess I will just bookmark this site.
      data scientist training and placements

      ReplyDelete
    34. It is late to find this act. At least one should be familiar with the fact that such events exist. I agree with your blog and will come back to inspect it further in the future, so keep your performance going.
      data scientist training in Hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    35. Very good message. I stumbled across your blog and wanted to say that I really enjoyed reading your articles. Anyway, I will subscribe to your feed and hope you post again soon.
      Machine Learning Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    36. Hi, I looked at most of your posts. This article is probably where I got the most useful information for my research. Thanks for posting, we can find out more about this. Do you know of any other websites on this topic?
      Data Science Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    37. Actually I read it yesterday but I had some ideas about it and today I wanted to read it again because it is so well written.
      Business Analytics Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    38. I was browsing the internet for information and found your blog. I am impressed with the information you have on this blog.
      Artificial Intelligence Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    39. It is late to find this act. At least one should be familiar with the fact that such events exist. I agree with your blog and will come back to inspect it further in the future, so keep your performance going.
      Data Science Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    40. Really impressed! Everything is a very open and very clear clarification of the issues. It contains true facts. Your website is very valuable. Thanks for sharing.
      Business Analytics Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    41. I wanted to leave a little comment to support you and wish you the best of luck. We wish you the best of luck in all of your blogging endeavors.
      Artificial Intelligence Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    42. A good blog always contains new and exciting information and as I read it I felt that this blog really has all of these qualities that make a blog.
      Machine Learning Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    43. Machine Learning is an in-depth region of AI focused within the design and creation of an algorithm which identifies and finds patterns that exist in data provided as input. This innovation will set a replacement approach of managing and regulating organizations or a further , especially companies.
      Machine learning Classes in Pune

      ReplyDelete
    44. I think about it is most required for making more on this get engaged
      data scientist training and placement

      ReplyDelete
    45. I wanted to leave a little comment to support you and wish you the best of luck. We wish you the best of luck in all of your blogging endeavors.
      Data Science Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    46. A good blog always contains new and exciting information and as I read it I felt that this blog really has all of these qualities that make a blog.
      Business Analytics Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    47. It is late to find this act. At least one should be familiar with the fact that such events exist. I agree with your blog and will come back to inspect it further in the future, so keep your performance going.
      Artificial Intelligence Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    48. Really impressed! Everything is a very open and very clear clarification of the issues. It contains true facts. Your website is very valuable. Thanks for sharing.
      Machine Learning Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    49. You are so interesting! I do not suppose I’ve read through anything like this before. So good to discover another person with a few genuine thoughts on this topic. Seriously. thank you for starting this up.
      Data Science Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    50. It's good to visit your blog again, it's been months for me. Well, this article that I have been waiting for so long. I will need this post to complete my college homework and it has the exact same topic with your article. Thanks, have a good day.
      Business Analytics Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    51. I wanted to leave a little comment to support you and wish you the best of luck, We wish you the best of luck in all of your blogging endeavors.
      Artificial Intelligence Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    52. I was browsing the internet for information and found your blog, I am impressed with the information you have on this blog.
      Machine Learning Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete

    53. Nice post. I used to be checking constantly this blog and I am impressed! Extremely useful info particularly the ultimate section 🙂 I take care of such information a lot. I was seeking this certain information for a long time. Thank you and best of luck.
      Report writing on blood donation camp

      ReplyDelete
    54. I want to leave a little comment to support and wish you the best of luck.we wish you the best of luck in all your blogging enedevors.
      data science training in chennai

      ReplyDelete
    55. I simply must tell you that you have written an excellent and unique article that I really enjoyed reading. I’m fascinated by how well you laid out your material and presented your views. Thank you. Unique Dofollow Backlinks

      ReplyDelete
    56. Thanks for such a great post and the review, I am totally impressed! Keep stuff like this coming.
      data scientist training and placement in hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    57. I would also motivate just about every person to save this web page for any favorite assistance to assist posted the appearance.
      data scientist training and placement

      ReplyDelete
    58. You are so interesting! I do not suppose I’ve read through anything like this before. So good to discover another person with a few genuine thoughts on this topic, thank you for starting this up.
      Data Science Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    59. It's good to visit your blog again, it's been months for me. Well, this article that I have been waiting for so long, I will need this post to complete my college homework and it has the exact same topic with your article. Thanks, have a good day.
      Business Analytics Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    60. I wanted to leave a little comment to support you and wish you the best of luck, I wish you the best of luck in all of your blogging endeavors.
      Artificial Intelligence Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    61. Highly informative article. This site has lots of information and it is useful for us. Thanks for sharing your views...

      DevOps Training in Hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    62. I was just examining through the web looking for certain information and ran over your blog.It shows how well you understand this subject. Bookmarked this page, will return for extra. data science course in vadodara

      ReplyDelete
    63. I’d should talk to you here. Which is not some thing I do! I quite like reading a post which will make people believe. Also, many thanks permitting me to comment! Unique Dofollow Backlinks

      ReplyDelete
    64. Thanks for sharing this blog. Good content. Keep sharing more.
      AI Training with Placements

      ReplyDelete
    65. I am glad to discover this page. I have to thank you for the time I spent on this especially great reading !! I really liked each part and also bookmarked you for new information on your site.
      Data Science Training in Hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    66. I want to leave a little comment to support and wish you the best of luck.we wish you the best of luck in all your blogging enedevors.
      business analytics courses

      ReplyDelete
    67. Hi, I looked at most of your posts. This article is probably where I got the most useful information for my research. Thanks for posting, we can find out more about this. Do you know of any other websites on this topic?
      Data Science Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    68. Actually I read it yesterday but I had some ideas about it and today I wanted to read it again because it is so well written.
      Business Analytics Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    69. I was browsing the internet for information and found your blog. I am impressed with the information you have on this blog.
      Artificial Intelligence Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    70. Very good message. I stumbled across your blog and wanted to say that I really enjoyed reading your articles. Anyway, I will subscribe to your feed and hope you post again soon.
      Machine Learning Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    71. Extremely overall quite fascinating post. I was searching for this sort of data and delighted in perusing this one. Continue posting. A debt of gratitude is in order for sharing. data analytics course in delhi

      ReplyDelete
    72. Amazing information i really enjoyed reading this wonderful article i have also bookmarked this blog for more interesting article
      gossipmouth
      flippzilla

      ReplyDelete
    73. I think I have never seen such blogs ever before that have complete things with all the details which I want. So kindly update this ever for us.
      data scientist course

      ReplyDelete
    74. These thoughts just blew my mind. I am glad you have posted this.
      data scientist training and placement

      ReplyDelete
    75. Excellent work done by you once again here. This is just the reason why I’ve always liked your work. You have amazing writing skills and you display them in every article. Keep it going!
      data scientist training and placement in hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    76. I was browsing the internet for information and found your blog. I am impressed with the information you have on this blog.
      Machine Learning Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    77. I am happy to read this blog. Great article. Keep sharing more.
      Machine Learning Course in Hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    78. Actually I read it yesterday but I had some ideas about it and today I wanted to read it again because it is so well written.
      Data Science Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    79. Very good message. I stumbled across your blog and wanted to say that I really enjoyed reading your articles. Anyway, I will subscribe to your feed and hope you post again soon.
      Artificial Intelligence Course in Delhi

      ReplyDelete
    80. I was browsing the internet for information and found your blog. I am impressed with the information you have on this blog.
      MLOps Training

      ReplyDelete
    81. Very good message. I stumbled across your blog and wanted to say that I really enjoyed reading your articles. Anyway, I will subscribe to your feed and hope you post again soon.
      MLOps Course

      ReplyDelete
    82. Hi, I looked at most of your posts. This article is probably where I got the most useful information for my research. Thanks for posting, we can find out more about this. Do you know of any other websites on this topic?
      IOT Training

      ReplyDelete
    83. Nice Blog. Thanks for sharing with us. Such amazing information.

      Which is the best VPN available in the market nowadays?

      ReplyDelete
    84. Actually I read it yesterday but I had some ideas about it and today I wanted to read it again because it is so well written.
      IOT Course

      ReplyDelete
    85. Actually, I was browsing the internet for information and found your blog. I am impressed with the information you have on this blog.
      MLOps Training

      ReplyDelete
    86. I will probably be coming back to your weblog for more soon! Best SMM Panel

      ReplyDelete
    87. Hi, I stumbled across your blog and wanted to say that I really enjoyed reading your articles. Anyway, I will subscribe to your feed and hope you post again soon.
      MLOps Course

      ReplyDelete
    88. Very good message, I stumbled across your blog and wanted to say that I really enjoyed reading your articles. Anyway, I will subscribe to your feed and hope you post again soon.
      MLOps Course

      ReplyDelete
    89. Very good message. I stumbled across your blog and wanted to say that I really enjoyed reading your articles. Anyway, I will subscribe to your feed and hope you post again soon. Thanks for sharing.
      MLOps Course

      ReplyDelete
    90. I want to leave a little comment to support and wish you the best of luck.we wish you the best of luck in all your blogging enedevors.
      iot course in bangalore

      ReplyDelete
    91. i am glad to discover this page : i have to thank you for the time i spent on this especially great reading !! i really liked each part and also bookmarked you for new information on your site.
      data science training in noida

      ReplyDelete
    92. Actually I read it yesterday but I had some ideas about it and today I wanted to read it again because it is so well written.
      IoT Training

      ReplyDelete
    93. Actually, I read it yesterday but I had some ideas about it and today I wanted to read it again because it is so well written.
      IoT Training

      ReplyDelete
    94. Actually, I was browsing the internet for information and found your blog. I am impressed with the information you have on this blog.
      MLOps Course

      ReplyDelete
    95. Very good message. I stumbled across your blog and wanted to say that I really enjoyed reading your articles. Anyway, I will subscribe to your feed and hope you post again soon.
      MLOps Training

      ReplyDelete
    96. Hi, I looked at most of your posts. This article is probably where I got the most useful information for my research. Thanks for posting, we can find out more about this. Do you know of any other websites on this topic?
      IoT Course

      ReplyDelete
    97. They're produced by the very best degree developers who will be distinguished for your polo dress creating. You'll find polo Ron Lauren inside exclusive array which include particular classes for men, women. data science course in delhi with placement

      ReplyDelete
    98. Paranoid Checker - $ 40 for EVERYTHING

      Hurry up to purchase at the best price $40!

      1. Facebook Adsmanager checks (Status_Country_Currency_Limit_Cost_Debt_Group), pulls out EAAB Token, takes a screenshot of Adsmanager.

      2. Google Accounts (provides data on the presence / absence of 2fa, PSI - Phone Sign In - the status of the option to log into the account using a phone instead of a password)

      3. Google Ads (valid, number of accounts, status, ban, spend, number of cards, 2fa, country, balance, statistics (clicks, interactions ...)

      4. Gpay (number of linked cards on all accounts)

      5. MegaNz (the number of files that are in the storage of this account, their names and file size)

      6. Discord (badges, nitro, boost, number of cards)

      7. YouTube. (monetization, the number of videos on the channel, the number of subscribers, Id, email, title, creation date - on all accounts and brand channels)

      8. The sorter is integrated. Search and sorting of logs by key. Very high speed of work.

      9. Doesn't kill logs. Constantly the freshest user agents, fingerprints and the option to “build” a user agent from the log data (ONLY FOR REDLINE LOGS)

      10. Maximises your performance. Determines the maximum number of threads depending on the number of processor cores (for VPS users).

      11. Mass offline proxies deletion.

      Best performance with browser Chromium 98.0.4696.6

      In the next updates: search in emails by keys, check of cold and browser wallets, grabber, discord spammer, Youtube uploader.

      We are actively developing. Frequent updates. Moreover, we collect feedback and modify the software for greater user convenience. The build for crypto and other services will be ready soon.


      For more info https://t.me/Paranoid_support @Paranoid_support

      We have reviews and checks on friendly forums, links on request.

      I am pleased to work a worker guarantor forum!
      https://crackingall.com/topic/9748-paranoid-checker-40-for-everything/

      ReplyDelete
    99. Excellent blog I visit this blog it's really awesome. The important thing is that in this blog content written clearly and understandable.
      Digitals Magazine

      ReplyDelete
    100. It's like you understand the topic well, but forgot to include your readers. Maybe you should think about it from several angles.
      Data Science Course in Jaipur

      ReplyDelete
    101. i am glad to discover this page : i have to thank you for the time i spent on this especially great reading !! i really liked each part and also bookmarked you for new information on your site.
      machine learning course in noida

      ReplyDelete
    102. I read it yesterday but I had some ideas about it and today I wanted to read it again because it is so well written.
      IoT Training

      ReplyDelete
    103. i am glad to discover this page : i have to thank you for the time i spent on this especially great reading !! i really liked each part and also bookmarked you for new information on your site.
      machine learning institute in delhi

      ReplyDelete
    104. This comment has been removed by the author.

      ReplyDelete
    105. Extremely overall quite fascinating post. I was searching for this sort of data and delighted in perusing this one. Continue posting. A debt of gratitude is in order for sharing.data science course in bangalore

      ReplyDelete
    106. Books offer us so many things without asking for anything in return. Books leave a deep impact on us and are responsible for uplifting our mood. That's great, you may also like to check these post as well:
      Click Here for Robert Greene book daily laws, Click Here for Novel Jannat Kay Pattay, Click Here for Bahishti Zewa in PDF and Click Here Romantic Novel, Click Here for Hasil Novel in PDF.

      ReplyDelete
    107. Very good message. I stumbled across your blog and wanted to say that I really enjoyed reading your articles. Anyway, I will subscribe to your feed and hope you post again soon.
      Data Scientist Course in India

      ReplyDelete
    108. I think this is a really good article. You make this information interesting and engaging. Thanks for sharing.
      Data Science Course in India

      ReplyDelete
    109. I want to leave a little comment to support and wish you the best of luck.we wish you the best of luck in all your blogging enedevors
      data analytics course in thiruvananthapuram

      ReplyDelete
    110. I want to leave a little comment to support and wish you the best of luck.we wish you the best of luck in all your blogging enedevors
      business analytics course in varanasi

      ReplyDelete
    111. Such a very useful article. Very interesting to read the article. I would like to thank you for sharing this awesome article.
      Data Analytics Course in Indore

      ReplyDelete
    112. This is a great inspiring blog.You have shared really very helpful information thank you.
      Data Scientist Course in Jaipur

      ReplyDelete
    113. I want to leave a little comment to support and wish you the best of luck.we wish you the best of luck in all your blogging enedevors
      data science training in varanasi

      ReplyDelete
    114. Excellently written article, if only all bloggers offered the same level of content as you, the internet would be a much better place. keep up the good work.
      Mlops Training

      ReplyDelete
    115. I want to leave a little comment to support and wish you the best of luck.we wish you the best of luck in all your blogging enedevors
      data science course in trivandrum

      ReplyDelete
    116. I am a new user of this site, so here I saw several articles and posts published on this site, I am more interested in some of them, will provide more information on these topics in future articles.
      data science course in london

      ReplyDelete
    117. I want to leave a little comment to support and wish you the best of luck.we wish you the best of luck in all your blogging enedevors
      data science course delhi

      ReplyDelete

    118. Your post is very great. I read this post. It’s very helpful. I will definitely go ahead and take advantage of this. You absolutely have wonderful stories. Cheers for sharing with us your blog. For more learning about data science visit at data science course in Bangalore

      ReplyDelete
    119. Amazingly by and large very interesting post. I was looking for such an information and thoroughly enjoyed examining this one.
      Keep posting. An obligation of appreciation is all together for sharing.
      data science course in gwalior

      ReplyDelete
    120. Thanks for the informative and helpful post, obviously in your blog everything is good..
      cyber security course in malaysia

      ReplyDelete
    121. You finished certain solid focuses there. I did a pursuit regarding the matter and discovered almost all people will concur with your blog.

      ReplyDelete
    122. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article. I am hoping the same best work from you in the future as well. In fact your creative writing abilities has inspired me to start my own Blog Engine blog now. Really the blogging is spreading its wings rapidly. Your write up is a fine example of it. Project Management Course

      ReplyDelete
    123. I wanted to leave a little comment to support you and wish you a good continuation. Wishing you the best of luck for all your blogging efforts. PMP certification in malaysia

      ReplyDelete
    124. Nice knowledge gaining article. This post is really the best on this valuable topic. business analytics course in surat

      ReplyDelete
    125. 360DigiTMG, the top-rated organisation among the most prestigious industries around the world, is an educational destination for those looking to pursue their dreams around the globe. The company is changing careers of many people through constant improvement, 360DigiTMG provides an outstanding learning experience and distinguishes itself from the pack. 360DigiTMG is a prominent global presence by offering world-class training. Its main office is in India and subsidiaries across Malaysia, USA, East Asia, Australia, Uk, Netherlands, and the Middle East.

      ReplyDelete
    126. Very informative blog! There is so much information here that can help thank you for sharing.
      Data Science Syllabus

      ReplyDelete
    127. This is a great inspiring blog.You have shared really very helpful information thank you.
      Data Scientist Course in Amritsar

      ReplyDelete
    128. Nice Blog! such a informative things you are sharing ,I really liked your content. If you wanna know about "Skillslash | Training with live industry experience that gets you hired" go to Data science courses in bangalore

      ReplyDelete
    129. Awesome blog. I enjoyed reading your articles. This is truly a great read for me. I have bookmarked it and I am looking forward to reading new articles. Keep up the good work!best data science course in bhubaneswar

      ReplyDelete
    130. Very great post which I really enjoy reading this and it is not everyday that I have the possibility to see something like this. Thank You.
      Best Online Data Science Courses

      ReplyDelete
    131. This is truly an practical and pleasant information for all and happy to see this awesome post by the way thanks for sharing this post.
      Data Scientist Course in Noida

      ReplyDelete
    132. Very nice job... Thanks for sharing this amazing and educative blog post!
      Data Science Training in Chandigarh

      ReplyDelete
    133. Truly overall quite fascinating post. I was searching for this sort of data and delighted in perusing this one. Continue posting. Much obliged for sharing.data analytics courses in bhopal

      ReplyDelete
    134. Excellent work done by you once again here and this is just the reason why I’ve always liked your work with amazing writing skills and you display them in every article. Keep it going!
      Data Analytics Courses in Hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    135. I am really enjoying reading your well written articles. It looks like you spend a lot of effort and time on your blog. Keep up the good work. Waiting for your next article
      Data Science Course in Jabalpur

      ReplyDelete
    136. A good blog always comes-up with new and exciting information and while reading I feel that this blog really has all those qualities that qualify a blog to be one.
      business analytics course in hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    137. Very informative message! There is so much information here that can help any business start a successful social media campaign!
      data science training in london

      ReplyDelete
    138. You re in point of fact a just right webmaster. The website loading speed is amazing. It kind of feels that you're doing any distinctive trick. Moreover, The contents are masterpiece. you have done a fantastic activity on this subject! data scientist course

      ReplyDelete
    139. This is an awesome motivational article. I am practically satisfied with your excellent work. You put really extremely useful data. Keep it up like this. Keep blogging. Looking forward to reading your next post
      Data science course in mangalore

      ReplyDelete
    140. Awesome blog. I enjoyed reading your articles. This is truly a great read for me. I have bookmarked it and I am looking forward to reading new articles. Keep up the good work!data analytics course in bhubaneswar

      ReplyDelete
    141. Interesting post. which i wondered about this issue so thanks for posting and very good article which is a really very nice and useful article. Thank you
      Data Science Course in Noida

      ReplyDelete
    142. I want to leave a little comment to support and wish you the best of luck.we wish you the best of luck in all your blogging enedevors
      business analytics course in varanasi

      ReplyDelete
    143. Very useful article to read and Information was helpful.I would like to thank you for the efforts you had made for writing this awesome article.
      Data Analytics Course

      ReplyDelete
    144. Amazingly by and large very interesting post. I was looking for such an information and thoroughly enjoyed examining this one.
      Keep posting. An obligation of appreciation is all together for sharing.
      business analytics course in gwalior

      ReplyDelete
    145. I want to leave a little comment to support and wish you the best of luck.we wish you the best of luck in all your blogging enedevors
      data science course in faridabad

      ReplyDelete
    146. Hi, This article is probably where I got the most useful information for my research. Do you know of any other websites on this topic?
      Data Analytics Course in Jalandhar

      ReplyDelete
    147. 360DigiTMG provides exceptional training in the Data Science course with placements. Learn the strategies and techniques from the best industry experts and kick start your career.data analytics course in ranchi

      ReplyDelete
    148. Through this post, I realize that your great information in playing with all the pieces was exceptionally useful. I advise this is the primary spot where I discover issues I've been scanning for. You have a smart yet alluring method of composing.diploma in digital marketing malaysia

      ReplyDelete
    149. Some processes need more time and attention to reach a result. It might take months for the data scientists to get the results. With the help of automated data science tools, it has become possible to reduce the time to just a few days or hours.

      ReplyDelete
    150. Data science is an old term, but the work on this term started after 1940. Many scientists work on this term and publish different books.data science course in vadodara

      ReplyDelete
    151. The first and foremost thing when learning data science is the discovery of data insight. In this aspect, the raw data is analyzed to gather information from raw data.

      data science course in gorakhpur</a

      ReplyDelete
    152. It is because machine learning has a significant impact on data science.data science course in varanasi

      ReplyDelete
    153. 360DigiTMG is the top-ranked and the best Data Science Course Training Institute in Hyderabad. We deliver exquisite training which expands your knowledge and capabilities.
      data science online training in hyderabad

      ReplyDelete
    154. But the companies need skilled persons for their businesses, and the people are coming with less knowledge. That is why the demand for data scientists has increased in the industry.data science course in chandigarh

      ReplyDelete
    155. Great post happy to see this. I thought this was a pretty interesting read when it comes to this topic Information. Thanks..

      -
      top hr software in india | top crm software in india

      ReplyDelete
    156. The data scientist term was not initiated at that time. But from the last decade, data science has been used by numerous fields, proving its value in every field by producing accurate results.data science course in meerut

      ReplyDelete
    157. It is the core requirement of data science because the way you take a detailed data set matters. You have to be able to find the correct meaning of data.data science course in ludhiana

      ReplyDelete
    158. I like viewing this web page which comprehend the price of delivering the excellent useful resource free of charge and truly adored reading your posting. Thank you!
      Data Science Certification Course

      ReplyDelete
    159. 360DigiTMG delivers the best Data Analytics course with placements. Top industry trainers, LMS access, world-class curriculum, mock interviews, and guidance sessions for resume preparation.Data Analytics Course in Faridabad

      ReplyDelete
    160. This is an informative and knowledgeable article. therefore, I would like to thank you for your effort in writing this article.
      Data Scientist Course in Chandigarh

      ReplyDelete
    161. You have done a great job and will definitely dig it and personally recommend to my friends. Thank You.
      Data Science Online Training

      ReplyDelete
    162. Data science has eliminated the administrator's permission to upgrade a particular web app.
      data science course in pondicherry

      ReplyDelete

    163. A good blog always contains new and exciting information and as I read it I felt that this blog really has all of these qualities that make a blog.
      Data Science Institutes in Bangalore

      ReplyDelete
    164. A good blog always comes-up with new and exciting information and while reading I have feel that this blog is really have all those quality that qualify a blog to be a one.data science course in surat

      ReplyDelete
    165. Are you looking for the best Data Science course institute that will aid you in growing in your career. 360DigiTMG is the place for you. Start your course today!business analytics course in rohtak

      ReplyDelete
    166. Get the best Data Science online course at the comfort of your home. Flexible timings, Best industry trainers, and meticulously crafted curriculum. Avail now!!!!business analytics course in varanasi

      ReplyDelete
    167. Data Analytics is a great field with multiple job opportunities. Start your career right with 360DigiTMG. Enroll today.business analytics course in kolkata

      ReplyDelete
    168. Amazing knowledge and I like to share this kind of information with my friends and hope they like it they why I do
      full stack web development course

      ReplyDelete
    169. Very interesting blog and lot of the blogs we see these days don't provide anything that interests me but i am really interested in this one just thought I would post and let you know.
      Data Science Training Institute in Noida

      ReplyDelete

    Add a comment. Registration required because trolls.